Excavations at Liang Bua, a limestone cave on the island of Flores, East Indonesia, have yielded a well-dated archaeological and faunal series from 95,000 years ago. The cave has evidence of human occupation of what they are calling Homo floresiensis or Flores Man, or a “Hobbit” and Homo erectus. Other evidence includes human remains from 17,000 years ago to today. The species of fauna consists of well-preserved evidence of animal, bird, reptile, and mollusks and include examples of island gigantism in tiny animals and also the dwarfing of large species.
The remains of Homo floresiensis, found in 2003 at Liang Bua, suggest they have stood 3.5 feet (1.1 m) tall. Partial skeletal systems of nine people were revealed, with one being complete with a head, described as "LB1". These remains have been the subject of intense study to establish whether they represent a species unique from modern-day humans. Together with evidence from Early-Middle Pleistocene sites in the Soa Basin, it validates the long-term isolation, impoverishment, and a family tree connection of the Flores faunal area. Stegodon and Komodo dragons continue to be found at the site. Birds, including vanished types of owl, mainly made up the collection of little vertebrates. The Holocene era, which is post Pleistocene, shows the termination of some species due to human encroachment, development of the area for human use which accelerated habitat loss, and also over-exploitation.